Six Suggested Founding Fathers' Vision Documents for Pakistan... I
28 October, 2011
By Air Marshal (Retired) Masood Akhtar
Document 1: Meesaq-e-Madinah by Ziauddin Kirmani
Document 2: Last Khutba of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)
Document 3: Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address
Document 4: Pakistan Resolutions
Document 5: Quaid's Address on 11th August, 1947
Document 6: Objectives Resolution, March 7, 1949
Liaqat Ali's Address on the Objectives Resolution
Mr. Chattopadhya's Address on the Objectives Resolution March 12, 1949
Note: While the text of all documents is original, suggested values have been annotated at the beginning of all articles for better focus.
Document 1: Meesaq-e-Madinah by Ziauddin Kirmani
Within a year or so, the Prophet (PBUH) chalked out a Charter of Rights for the citizens of Madinah, laying the foundation of a city State, wherein various elements in the body politic pledged to cooperate on the principle of coexistence in the common cause of security and welfare of the State. Dr. Hameedullah, in his informative and scholarly work, Al-vathaa-'equas siyasiyyah (Cairo), has re-constructed some 47 clauses of the pact from the available texts. (In his separate book Maulana Tahirul Qadri has put together 63 articles.)
Salient provisions of the historic pact are rearranged below in a particular order to bring out in relief the salient features of the Muslim polity in its earliest stage.
1. This is a document on behalf of Mohammad, the Prophet (PBUH), as between all Muslim from the Quraish and the Medianites and those who follow them and are thus attached to them and strive with them.
2. One Nation of Muslims and Jews "They from one community ('Ummatul Vahidah") apart from other people."
3. Pluralism and Freedom of Religion "And the Jews of Banu "Auf form one community ("Ummatun") along with the Muslims. Shall have their own religion and the Muslims shall have their own religion – their associates as well as themselves – except one who transgresses or commits a wrong. He shall be inviting trouble only for himself and his own people."
4. Equal Rights "And for the Jews of other (mixed) tribes (named in the document) the rights and obligations shall be the same as for the Jews of Bani Auf, except, one who transgresses or only for himself and his own people."
5. Equal Rights "And the associates of the Jews shall be considered at one with them (that is the main tribes)."
6. Sincerity and Fraternity "And the Jews and the Muslim shall bear their own expenses. They shall help each other against one who fights with the people of this covenant. Among them there shall be goodwill and sincere counsel rather than foul play.
7. Common Obligations "And the Jews and the Muslim shall share expenses in the state of war."
8. Lawfulness "And it will be unlawful for the people of this covenant to disturb the peace of Madinah."
9. Common Defence "And they shall help each other against one who poses a threat to Madinah."
10. Social Justice "And none shall do wrong to his ally and the aggrieved shall be entitled to all help"
11. Mutual Security "And the idolater shall not render any support in person or money, to an (idolatrous) Quraish (of Makah) nor shall he intervene in his behalf against a Muslim".
12. Mutual Support "And neither the (idolatrous) Quraish nor one who helps them shall be given asylum or protection".
13. Unity of Command and Leadership "And none shall (hereafter) dissociate oneself from the contracting parties unilaterally except with the permission of Mohammad (PBUH)".
14. Unity of Leadership "And if there arises any new situation or any dispute that may threaten its violation, the matter is to be referred to Allah and Mohammad, His prophet".
Apart from the main Jewish tribes living on the outskirts of Yathrib (Al–Madinah), the idolatrous tribes within the city, too had quite sizable Jewish content which had to be bound separately and expressly by this pact. Separate alliances were, however, signed later on with the three main Jewish tribes of Banu Qainoqaa' Banu an-Nadeer and Banu Quraizah, who were held responsible on subsequent occasions for subverting the loyalty of the Medinite tribes bound by the pact. For in spite of this seemingly foreign element, these idolatrous tribes functioned peacefully as well knit social units.
The second point worthy of note in this historic pact is the most catholic basis of the Muslim polity that if non Muslim agreed, of their free will, to cooperate with the Muslims to promote and defend a society based on the socio economic principles enunciated by Islam, various religious communities could co-exist in an Islam oriented ideological State as equal partners under a covenant welding them into one political entity and guaranteeing full protection to the religion, culture and personal law of each contracting community, subject only to over riding considerations of human values, public morality and decency. The clear expressions of ummatun vahida min doon-an nass' in (2) Ummatun ma'al-momineen' in (3) in the above cited document are of great significance and worthy of attention of the students of political science. It goes without saying that the basic requirement for the success of any pact is goodwill and sincerity on the part of the contracting parties. But in an arrangement like the one envisaged, the success depended, more on the generous treatment by the dominant element than the technically correct conduct of other partners.
Note: While the commentary is by Ziauddin Kirmani, the emphasis and topics of various tenets (in all documents) are added by the scribe.
Document 2: Last Khutba of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)
The Holy Prophet (PBUH) finalized the Ends of Islam in this unique document. Revolutionary in nature, these ends were given to humanity over fourteen hundred years back, well before Rousseau and Voltaire came up with their equality, liberty, and fraternity in the eighteenth century. These can be enumerated as Total Human Equality, Simplicity, Forgiveness/Freedom from Human Bondage, Inviolability of blood property and honour, Women Rights, Inheritance, Morality/Legitimacy, Loyalty/Ancestry, Integrity, Responsibility, Muslim Brotherhood, Right of slaves/servants, Honesty Loyalty, Deen and Affirmation of piety/belief. Does that imply that five pillars of Islam must finally result into these ends?
"All praise due to Allah, so we praise Him, and seek His pardon and we turn to Him. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves and from the evil consequences of our deeds. Whom Allah guide the aright, there is none to lead him astray; and there is none to guide him aright whom Allah leads astray. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, the One having no partner with Him. His is the Sovereignty and to Him is due all praise. He grants life and causes death and is Powerful over everything. There is no God but Allah, the One; He fulfilled His promise and helped His servant and He alone routed the confederates. O People, listen to my words for I do not know whether we shall meet again and perform Hajj after this year."
1. Human Equality. "O People! Allah says: "O People we created you from one male and one female and made you into tribes and nations, so that you are known to one another. Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured amongst you is the one who is the most God-fearing." There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for the white over the black nor for the black over the white except in piety. All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay.
2. Simplicity. Behold! Every claim of privilege whether that of blood or property, is under my feet except that of the custody of Allah's House (Ka'aba) and supplying of waters to the pilgrimage.
3. Piety. O People of Quraish! Do not appear with the burden of this world around your necks, whereas other people may appear (before the Lord) with the rewards of the Hereafter. In that case I shall avail you naught against Allah.
4. Forgiveness/Freedom from Human Bondage Behold! All practices of the days of ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. And the first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibne Rabi'ah bin Al-Harith who was nursed (brought up) in Bani Sa'd and who was killed by the Hudhayls. All interest and usurious dues accruing from the age of ignorance stand wiped out. And the first amount of interest that I remit is that which Abbas bin Abdul Mutallib had to receive. Verily, it is being remitted entirely.
5. Inviolability of Blood, Property and Honour. O People! Verily your blood, your property and honour are sacred and inviolable until you appear before your Lord, as the sacred inviolability of this day of yours, this month of yours, and this very town (of yours). Verily, you will soon meet your Lord and you will be held accountable for your deeds.
6. Women Rights. O People! Verily, you have got certain right over your women – and your women have certain rights over you. It is your right upon them that they must not allow anybody save you to come to your bed and admit none to enter your homes whom you do not like but with your permission. And it is for them not to commit acts of impropriety, which if they do, you are authorised by Allah to separate them from your beds and chastise them, but not severely, and if they refrain, then cloth and feed them properly. Behold! It is not permissible for a woman to give anything from wealth of her husband to anyone but with his consent.
7. Women Rights. Treat the women kindly, since they are your helpers and are not in a position to manage their affairs themselves. Fear Allah concerning them, for verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah.
8. Inheritance. O People! Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has ordained to everyone his due share (of inheritance). Hence there is no need (of special) testament for their (departing from the rules laid down by the Shariah).
9. Morality/Legitimacy. The child belongs to the marriage-bed and the violator of wedlock shall be stoned. And reckoning of their deeds rests with Allah.
10. Loyalty/Ancestry. He, who attributes his ancestry to other than his father or claims his client-ship to other than his master, the curse of Allah is upon him.
11. Integrity. All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured.
12. Responsibility. Beware! No one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself. Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor is the father responsible for the crime of his child.
13. Integrity. Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives willingly. So do not wrong yourselves.
14. Brotherhood. O People! Every Muslim is the brother of other Muslim, and all the Muslims from one brotherhood.
15. Rights of slaves/servants. And your slaves! See that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves, and cloth them with the clothes as you yourselves wear.
16. Integrity. Beware that you go not astray after me and strike one another's necks. He who (amongst you) has any trust with him, he must return it to its owner.
17. Deen. O People! There is no Prophet to come after me and there would be no Ummah to form after you. Verily I have left amongst you that which would never lead you astray, the Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of His Messenger, which, if you hold fast, you shall never be misled. And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of Deen, for it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) Deen, that brought destruction to many people before you
18. Beware of Evil. Verily the Satan is disappointed at ever being worshipped in this land of yours, but if obedience in anything( short of worship is expected that is): he will be pleased in matters you may be disposed to think insignificant, so beware of him in the matters of your Deen.
19. Affirmation of piety/belief. Behold! worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramazan; Pay readily the Zakat (poor- due) on your property; and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and obey your rulers and you will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord."
Document 3: Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address
Iqbal applied himself in all fields and subjects especially in Islam and continued to evolve throughout his life. It is believed that he said and wrote for the ordinary in Urdu, and presented the more difficult concepts in Persian and then in English. People quote many of his verses for their own vested interests, but his Allahabad Address to the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930 is generally considered to be his Magna Carta on Muslim Nation Building. But his Magnum Opus truly, is his Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam which we shall cover later.
This great document presented the Pakistan Idea for the first time and gave many concepts for securing the rights of Muslims within a United India. These comprised ideas like Nationalism vs. Internationalism, National Identity/ Purpose/ Culture and Rights of Minorities etc. The big question today is, do these ideas apply to Pakistan today, with its multi-faceted and complex problems and crises in difficult times?
It is a long document of over 9000 words and 16 pages, thus we have sifted only the salient points and tenets to help evolve our values on National Security. Because of the enormity of scope and number of ideas presented this article is being abridged under four main headings i.e. Islam: The Concept, Nationalism vs. Internationalism, Muslim India within India (with a distinct National purpose?), and Federal States.
Islam: The Concept
Islam an Inclusive Concept
It has furnished those basic emotions and loyalties which gradually:
• Unify scattered individuals and groups, and finally transform them into a well-defined people,
• Possessing a moral consciousness of their own
In India, as elsewhere, the structure of Islam as a society is almost entirely due to the working of Islam as a culture inspired by a specific ethical ideal:
• What I mean to say is that Muslim society, with its remarkable homogeneity and inner unity, has grown to be what it is,
• Under the pressure of the laws and institutions associated with the culture of Islam.
Muslims Learn Nationalism from the West
The ideas set free by European political thinking, however, are now rapidly changing the outlook of the present generation of Muslims both in India and outside India.
• Our younger men, inspired by these ideas, are anxious to see them as living forces in their own countries, without any critical appreciation of the facts which have determined their evolution in Europe.
• In Europe Christianity was understood to be a purely monastic order which gradually developed into a vast church organisation.
The protest of Luther was directed against this church organisation, not against any system of polity of a secular nature, for the obvious reason that there was no such polity associated with Christianity.
Nationalism of Rousseau and Luther
Thus the upshot of the intellectual movement initiated by such men as Rousseau and Luther was:
• the break-up of the one into [the] mutually ill-adjusted many,
• the transformation of a human into a national outlook, requiring a more realistic foundation, such as the notion of country,
• and finding expression through varying systems of polity evolved on national lines, i.e. on lines which recognise territory as the only principle of political solidarity.
Religion as complete other-worldliness?
If you begin with the conception of religion as complete other-worldliness, then what has happened to Christianity in Europe is perfectly natural.
• The universal ethics of Jesus is displaced by national systems of ethics and polity.
• The conclusion to which Europe is consequently driven is that religion is a private affair of the individual and has nothing to do with what is called man's temporal life.
Islam's Universal Constitution
Islam does not bifurcate the unity of man into an irreconcilable duality of spirit and matter. In Islam:
• God and the universe, spirit and matter, Church and State, are organic to each other.
• Man is not the citizen of a profane world to be renounced in the interest of a world of spirit situated elsewhere.
• To Islam, matter is spirit realising itself in space and time.
Iqbal Predicts in 1930, a Federated Europe of today!
Europe uncritically accepted the duality of spirit and matter, probably from Manichaean (a heretical Christian belief in the separate nature of matter and spirit) thought.
• Her best thinkers are realising this initial mistake today,
• But her statesmen are indirectly forcing the world to accept it as an unquestionable dogma.
The result is a set of mutually ill-adjusted States dominated by interests not human but national.
• And these mutually ill-adjusted States, after trampling over the moral and religious convictions of Christianity, are today feeling the need of a federated Europe, i.e. the need of a unity which the Christian church organisation originally gave them, but which,
• Instead of reconstructing it in the light of Christ's vision of human brotherhood, they considered fit to destroy under the inspiration of Luther.
Nationalism vs. Internationalism
Need to reinvent Islam
In the world of Islam we have a universal polity:
• Whose fundamentals are believed to have been revealed but whose structure, owing to our legists' [legal theorists'] want of contact with the modern world, today,
• Stands in need of renewed power by fresh adjustments
The great difficulty is how to save the foundations of religion when many antiquated notions have to be given up
Nationalism- The Problem!
At the present moment the national idea is radicalizing the outlook of Muslims, and:
• Thus materially counteracting the humanizing work of Islam. And
• The growth of racial consciousness may mean the growth of standards different [from] and even opposed to the standards of Islam.
Never in our history has Islam had to stand a greater trial than the one which confronts it today.
• It is open to a people to modify, reinterpret or reject the foundational principles of their social structure;
• But it is absolutely necessary for them to see clearly what they are doing before they undertake to try a fresh experiment
Is it possible to retain Islam as an ethical ideal and to reject it as a polity (a state, society, or institution regarded as a political entity), in favour of national polities in which [the] religious attitude is not permitted to play any part?
Therefore the construction of a polity on national lines, if it means a displacement of the Islamic principle of solidarity, is simply unthinkable to a Muslim. This is a matter which at the present moment directly concerns the Muslims of India.
Answer: Inclusive Islam
Such a formation is quite possible, though it involves:
• The long and arduous process of practically remaking men and furnishing them with fresh emotional equipment.
• It might have been a fact in India if the teaching of Kabir and the Divine Faith of Akbar had seized the imagination of the masses of this country.
Full and Free Development of Cultures
Communal Development: Right of every Community
I have no hesitation in declaring that if the principle that
• The Indian Muslim is entitled to full and free development on the lines of his own culture and tradition in his own Indian home-lands,
• Is recognized as the basis of a permanent communal settlement, he will be ready to stake his all for the freedom of India
A community which is inspired by feelings of ill-will towards other communities is low and ignoble.
I entertain the highest respect for the customs, laws, religious and social institutions of other communities.
• Nay, it is my duty, according to the teaching of the Quran, even to defend their places of worship, if need be
• Yet I love the communal group which is the source of my life and behaviour; and
• Which has formed me what I am by giving me its religion, its literature, its thought, its culture, and thereby recreating its whole past as a living operative factor, in my present consciousness
But the staunchest internationalist recognises that
• Without the fullest national autonomy it is extraordinarily difficult to create the international State
• So also without the fullest cultural autonomy – and communalism in its better aspect is culture – it will be difficult to create a harmonious nation"
Muslim India within India (with a distinct National purpose?)
Nationalities and Sub-Nationalities
India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages, and professing different religions (so is Pakistan?). Their behaviour is not at all determined by a common race-consciousness.
The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of communal groups.
The resolution of the All-Parties Muslim Conference at Delhi is, to my mind, wholly inspired by this noble ideal of a harmonious whole which,
• Instead of stifling the respective individualities of its component wholes,
• Affords them chances of fully working out the possibilities that may be latent in them.
The Pakistan Idea
Personally, I would go farther than the demands embodied in it.
• I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State.
• Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.
The idea need not alarm the Hindus or the British.
• India is the greatest Muslim country in the world.
• The life of Islam as a cultural force in the country very largely depends on its centralisation in a specified territory
It will intensify their sense of responsibility and deepen their patriotic feeling.
Unitary Government is Impractical
I may frankly tell him that the Muslim demand is not actuated by the kind of motive he impugns (to suggest that something cannot be trusted, relied on, or respected) to us;
• It is actuated by a genuine desire for free development
• Which is practically impossible under the type of unitary government contemplated by the nationalist Hindu politicians with a view to secure permanent communal dominance in the whole of India
Islam Conceived a Contractual State Well before Rousseau?
Islam is not a Church. It is a State conceived as a contractual organism long before Rousseau ever thought of such a thing,
• And animated by an ethical ideal which regards man not as an earth-rooted creature, defined by this or that portion of the earth,
• But as a spiritual being understood in terms of a social mechanism, and possessing rights and duties as a living factor in that mechanism.
Times of India pointed out some time ago in a leader [front-page article] on the Indian Banking Inquiry Committee.
• "In ancient India," the paper points out, "the State framed laws regulating the rates of interest;
• But in Muslim times, although Islam clearly forbids the realisation of interest on money loaned, Indian Muslim States imposed no restrictions on such rates."
Federation not Unitary State?
In view of India's infinite variety in climates, races, languages, creeds and social systems,
• The creation of autonomous states, based on the unity of language, race, history, religion and identity of economic interests,
• Is the only possible way to secure a stable constitutional structure in India.
Proper redistribution will
• Make the question of joint and separate electorates automatically disappear from the constitutional controversy of India.
• It is the present structure of the provinces that is largely responsible for this controversy. (Likewise in Pakistan?)
Separate Electorates: For Economically Unequal Communal Groups Only
The Hindu thinks that separate electorates are contrary to the spirit of true nationalism, because
• He understands the word nation to mean a kind of universal amalgamation in which no communal entity ought to retain its private individuality.
• Such a state of things, however, does not exist. Nor is it desirable that it should exist.
India is a land of racial and religious variety.
• Add to this the general economic inferiority of the Muslims, their enormous debt, especially in the Punjab, and their insufficient majorities in some of the provinces as at present constituted, and
• You will begin to see clearly the meaning of our anxiety to retain separate electorates.
In such a country and in such circumstances territorial electorates cannot secure adequate representation of all interests, and must inevitably lead to the creation of an oligarchy (form of government in which the supreme power is vested in a few persons)
The Muslims of India can have no objection to purely territorial electorates if
• Provinces are demarcated so as to secure comparatively homogeneous communities,
• Possessing linguistic, racial, cultural and religious unity
Federation As Understood in the Simon Report
The pundits of England, on the other hand, realising that
• Democracy in the Centre tends to work contrary to their interests and
• Is likely to absorb the whole power now in their hands, in case a further advance is made towards responsible government,
• Have shifted the experience of democracy from the Centre to the provinces
The Muslims demand federation because it is pre-eminently a solution of India's most difficult problem, i.e. the communal problem
The Nehru Report, realising
• Hindu majority in the Central Assembly, reaches a unitary form of government because such an institution secures Hindu dominance throughout India;
• the Simon Report retains the present British dominance behind the thin veneer of an unreal federation
Federal Scheme As Discussed in the Round Table Conference
It was a kind of surprise to the people of India, particularly the minorities, to see
• The Indian Princes dramatically expressing their willingness at the Round Table Conference to join an all-India federation and,
• As a result of their declaration, Hindu delegates – uncompromising advocates of a unitary form of government – quietly agreeing to the evolution of a federal scheme
• The questions is not one of the Muslim share in a British Indian Assembly, but
• One which relates to representation of British Indian Muslims in an All-India Federal Assembly
• Our demand for 33 per cent must now be taken as a demand for the same proportion in the All-India Federal Assembly, exclusive of the share allotted to the Muslim states entering the Federation
The two most important constitutional problems of India:
A redistribution of British India, calculated to secure a permanent solution of the communal problem, is the main demand of the Muslims of India.
If, however, the Muslim demand of a territorial solution of the communal problem is ignored, then I support, as emphatically as possible,
• The Muslim demands repeatedly urged by the All-India Muslim League and the All-India Muslim Conference.
• The Muslims of India cannot agree to any constitutional changes which affect their majority rights, to be secured by separate electorates in the Punjab and Bengal, or
• Which fail to guarantee them 33 percent representation in any Central Legislature.
There were two pitfalls into which Muslim political leaders fell:
The first was the repudiated Lucknow Pact, which originated in a false view of Indian nationalism and deprived the Muslims of India of chances of acquiring any political power in India.
The second is the narrow- visioned sacrifice of Islamic solidarity:
• In the interests of what may be called Punjab ruralism,
• Resulting in a proposal which virtually reduces the Punjab Muslims to a position of minority.
• It is the duty of the league to condemn both the pact and the proposal.
Nor should the Muslim leaders and politicians allow themselves to be carried away by the subtle but fallacious argument that Turkey and Persia and other Muslim countries are progressing on national, i.e. territorial, lines. The Muslims of India are differently situated.
• The countries of Islam outside India are practically wholly Muslim in population.
• The minorities there belong, in the language of the Quran, to the 'people of the Book'.
• There are no social barriers between Muslims and the 'people of the Book'.
• A Jew or a Christian or a Zoroastrian (Iqbal considers Parsees also as the people of the Book!!!) does not pollute the food of a Muslim by touching it, and the law of Islam allows intermarriage with the 'people of the Book'.
Islam Aimed at One World-One Nation
Indeed the first practical step that Islam took towards the realisation of a final combination of humanity was to call upon peoples possessing practically the same ethical ideal to come forward and combined.
• The Quran declares: "O people of the Book! Come, let us join together on the 'word' (Unity of God) that is common to us all."
• The wars of Islam and Christianity, and later, European aggression in its various forms, could not allow the infinite meaning of this verse to work itself out in the world of Islam.
• Today it is being gradually realised in the countries of Islam in the shape of what is called Muslim Nationalism.
Let me tell you frankly that, at the present moment, the Muslims of India are suffering from two evils.
The first is the want of personalities.
• Sir Malcolm Hailey and Lord Irwin were perfectly correct in their diagnosis when they told the Aligarh University that the community had failed to produce leaders.
• By leaders I mean men who, by Divine gift or experience, possess a keen perception of the spirit and destiny of Islam, along with an equally keen perception of the trend of modern history.
• Such men are really the driving forces of a people, but they are God's gift and cannot be made to order.
The second evil from which the Muslims of India are suffering is that the community is fast losing what is called the herd instinct:
• This [loss] makes it possible for individuals and groups to start independent careers without contributing to the general thought and activity of the community.
• We are doing today in the domain of politics what we have been doing for centuries in the domain of religion.
• But sectional bickerings in religion do not do much harm to our solidarity. They at least indicate an interest in what makes the sole principle of our structure as a people.
• Moreover, the principle is so broadly conceived that it is almost impossible for a group to become rebellious to the extent of wholly detaching itself from the general body of Islam.
• But diversity in political action, at a moment when concerted action is needed in the best interests of the very life of our people, may prove fatal.
How shall we, then, remedy these two evils?
Leaders? The remedy of the first evil is not in our hands.
Herd Instinct? As to the second evil, I think it is possible to discover a remedy. I have got definite views on the subject; but I think it is proper to postpone their expression till the apprehended situation actually arises.
• In case it does arise, leading Muslims of all shades of opinion will have to meet together, not to pass resolutions, but finally to determine the Muslim attitude and to show the path to tangible achievement.
• In this address I mention this alternative only because I wish that you may keep it in mind and give some serious thought to it in the meantime.
Conclusion: Common Identity & Purpose?
I cannot but impress upon you that the present crisis in the history of India demands
• Complete organisation and unity of will and purpose in the Muslim community,
• Both in your own interest as a community, and in the interest of India as a whole.
• The political bondage of India has been and is a source of infinite misery to the whole of Asia. It has suppressed the spirit of the East and wholly deprived her of that joy of self-expression which once made her the creator of a great and glorious culture. We have a duty towards India where we are destined to live and die.
Our duty towards Asia and India cannot be loyally performed
• Without an organised will fixed on a definite purpose.
• In your own interest, as a political entity among other political entities of India, such an equipment is an absolute necessity.
One of the profoundest verses in the Holy Quran teaches us that the birth and rebirth of the whole of humanity is like the birth and rebirth of a single individual.
Why cannot you who, as a people, can well claim to be the first practical exponents of this superb conception of humanity,
• Live and move and have your being as a single individual? I do not wish to mystify anybody when I say that things in India are not what they appear to be.
• The meaning of this, however, will dawn upon you only when you have achieved a real collective ego to look at them.
• In the words of the Quran, "Hold fast to yourself; no one who erreth can hurt you, provided you are well guided" (5:104).
Document 4: Pakistan Resolutions
There are three versions of Pakistan Resolution. While we celebrate the Lahore Resolution year after year, ironically we have implemented the revisited at Delhi. While the former clearly called for a loose federation or maybe even a confederation, the latter recommended a unitary centralised state. The second resolution at Madras also called for "Independent States as Muslim Free National Homelands in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign". Are these our strategic blunders? Why can't we hear the smaller provinces cry out for true autonomy?
Additionally, all three resolutions called for adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards to be specifically provided in the constitution for the minorities both in Pakistan and India. This seemingly has not happened. We must critically compare these concepts with those provided in other documents like the Objectives Resolution and the constitution.
Are these anomalies responsible for all our woes? We need to remember the universal principle that, the errors made at the grand strategic or strategic levels shall cause disasters at the operational and tactical levels. Only those tenets from the resolutions have been carried in this write-up that have security implications for Pakistan today.
Lahore Resolution: 1940
Basic principles That geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions:
• Which should be so constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary,
• Loose Federation or a Confederation? That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India, should be grouped to constitute "Independent States" in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign
Minority Safeguards That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution:
• For minorities in these units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them
• And in other parts of India where the Mussalmans are in a minority adequate, effective, and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them.
Constitutional Principles This session further authorizes the Working Committee to
• Frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles,
• Providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions, of all powers such as defence, external affairs, communications, customs, and such other matters as may be necessary
Madras Resolution: 12th April 1941
Basic Principles "Resolve that the following amendment be made in the aims and objects of the All-India Muslim League and for Section 2 (a) of the Constitution and Rules of the All India Muslim League the following be substituted:-
• The establishment of completely Independent States formed by demarcating geographically contiguous units into regions
• Which shall be so constituted, with such territorial readjustments as maybe necessary,
• That the areas in which the Mussalmans are numerically in a majority,
• Unitary not Federal State? As in the North Western and Eastern zones of India, shall be grouped together to constitute Independent States as Muslim Free National Homelands in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign
Minority Safeguards that adequate, effective and mandatory safeguard shall be specifically provided in the constitution:
• For minorities in the above mentioned units and regions
• For the protection of their religious, cultural , economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them;
Muslim Minority Areas That in other parts of India where the Mussalmans are in a minority, adequate, effective, and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them
Raison D'etre (reason to be a nation) whereas in this vast subcontinent of India:
• A hundred million Muslims are the adherents of a faith which regulates every department of their life (educational, social, economic and political), whose code is not confined merely to spiritual doctrines and tenets or rituals and ceremonies and,
• Which stands in sharp contrast to the exclusive nature of Hindu Dharma and Philosophy which has fostered and maintained for thousands of years a rigid Caste System resulting in the degradation of 60 million human beings to the position of untouchables, creation of unnatural barriers between man and super-imposition of social and economic inequalities on a large body of the people of this country,
• And which threatens to reduce Muslims, Christians and other minorities to the status of irredeemable helots, socially and economically
• Whereas, the Hindu Caste System is a direct negation of nationalism, equality, democracy and all the noble ideals that Islam stands for
Two Distinct Nations Whereas, different historical backgrounds, traditions cultures, social and economic orders of the Hindus and Muslim
• Have made impossible the evolution of a single Indian nation inspired by common aspirations and ideals,
• And whereas after centuries they still remain two distinct major nations;
Unitary not a Federal State? Whereas the Muslim are convinced that with a view to save Muslim India from the domination of the Hindus and
• In order to afford them full scope to develop themselves according to their genius,
• It is necessary to constitute a sovereign independent state comprising Bengal and Assam in the North-East zone and the Punjab, N.W.F.P. Sind and Balochistan in the North-West zone;
Minority Safeguards That the minorities in Pakistan and Hindustan be provided with safeguard on the lines of the All-India Muslim League Resolution passed on the 23rd March, 1940, at Lahore;
Continue to Part II...
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