Pakistan News Service

Wednesday Nov 13, 2019, Rabi-al-awwal 15, 1441 Hijri

Roots of Nuclear Proliferation

30 May, 2006

By Adnan Gill

  Related News  
Indian PM fails to strike nuclear deal in Russia
India far behind Pakistan, China in nuclear technology: Experts
  Related Articles  
India: Toxic Hotspot of Uranium & Nuclear Wastes
By Zaheerul Hassan
Democratic India lost control over Army Chief
By Zaheerul Hassan
  More on this View All

Every time an atom of uranium or plutonium finds its way to the core of nuclear weapon, angels of “Manhattan Project” ring a bell in Los Alamos. The bells have not rung so often and so loud since the Cold-War ended. Any nation that feels insecure or craves recognition pays homage to these angels. Emperor Hirohito dreamt of it, Hitler strived for it, but it was the American President Harry Truman who on July 16, 1945 set the nuclear genie loose in the deserts of Los Alamos.

Nuclear proliferation was born with the first set of American nuclear weapons. The US launched the practice by gifting it to the UK and France. French passed the nuclear technology to Israel and India. The rogue (socialist) elements in the UK and US exported the same technology to the Soviet Union, which in turn gave it away to countries like China and India. China in kind, passed it to Pakistan who is said to have kept the tradition alive by passing it on to Iran, Libya and North Korea. Israel did its part by bringing South Africa and Brazil onboard, as India lovingly took Iraq, Vietnam, South Korea and especially Iran under its wings.

On May, 02, 2006, Pakistan announced an end to investigations surrounding the leaking of nuclear secrets by the Pakistani nuclear scientist, Abdul Qadeer Khan. Pakistani Foreign Ministry spokesperson Tasnim Aslam announced, “[as far Pakistan is] concerned this chapter is closed.” With these words Pakistan sent a strong message to the world community.

Multifold message was loud and clear:

1. We are displeased and disappointed with the US for rewarding India by signing a discriminatory Indo-US nuclear deal despite India’s disreputable proliferation and dismal nuclear safety record.

2. We disapprove the American strategy of propping up India as the regional policeman.

3. Instead of winning friends for our full cooperation to the US and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in dismantling the so-called A.Q. proliferation network Pakistan is being unwarrantedly cornered; therefore Pakistan will protect its strategic interests first and foremost by putting an end to the witch hunt of its nuclear scientists whose efforts and sacrifices significantly improved Pakistan’s security.

The US proliferation started when it trained the foreign scientists from Britain, Canada and France in the art of "Atomic Bomb" making during the Manhattan project. In an effort to contain communism before it could find its way out of the Soviet Union the US started to pass on nuclear technology to its friends under the garb of the "Atoms for Peace" program. To this day the world has not been able to recover from this massive US proliferation.

Though the United States merits the dubious distinction of being the original proliferator, it was soon joined by a host of other wannabes. Following is a brief history of global proliferation, the actors involved and the end results.

Soviet Union: Great Soviet minds such as Yakov Zel’dovich and Yuli Khariton were tinkering with the nuclear technology, but it took no less than complete designs and data of American nuclear weapons supplied by the "Atom Spies" like Klaus Fuchs and Rosenbergs to detonate USSR’s first nuclear device. The USSR detonated its first nuclear device on 29 August 1949.

Britain: The British program directly benefited from the American Manhattan Project when its scientists like Geoffrey I. Taylor and William G. Penney were sent to Los Alamos under the cover of 1943 Quebec Agreement. These scientists became the nucleus for the British post-war atomic weapons development efforts. Under the Quebec Agreement, Canada supplied plutonium for the first British nuclear device (codenamed Hurricane). Britain detonated its first device on 15 September 1952.

France: The French scientists like Dr. Bertrand Goldschmitt also worked with the Anglo-Canadian team on the Manhattan Project. After the war, he continued the weapons work in France. First French nuclear test, codenamed Gerboise Bleue, was conducted on 13 February 1960 at Reggane in Algeria.

China: China made tremendous gains from the Soviet proliferation. In 1951 Peking signed a secret agreement with Moscow through which China received nuclear assistance in exchange for uranium ores. In 1957, China and USSR signed an agreement on new technology for national defense, which included additional Soviet nuclear assistance. The Soviets also supplied China with a major gaseous diffusion facility to enrich uranium. China’s first nuclear test was conducted at Lop Nor on 16 October 1964.

India: India is a prime example of American-initiated nuclear proliferation through the “Atoms for Peace” program. During the 1950s and then in 1960s the US and Canada helped India to lay the foundation of its nuclear weapons technology. In 1956, Canada built 40 megawatt Canada-India Reactor, US (CIRUS) in India. The US supplied heavy water for it. This reactor later became the source of plutonium for India’s nuclear devices tested in 1974 and 1998.

In 1963 India ordered two 210-megawatt reactors from General Electric. India received its first heavy water production plant from Germany in 1962 and then built additional seven heavy water plants with help of France and Switzerland. Later on in the 80s Norway and Soviet Union became the major suppliers of heavy water for India’s unsafeguarded nuclear plants through a German middleman named Alfred Hempel (a former Nazi who shipped tons of heavy water via Dubai). In 1965, the Britain established Gauribidnur Seismic Station at BARC, which was used to develop and calibrate fast-slow explosive lenses used in 1974 nuclear device. In 1969, 30 Indian nuclear scientists, engineers, and technicians traveled to France for training and subsequent work on the designs of its fast breeder reactor. In 1974, Canada agreed to provide India blueprints for its CANDU reactor. The blueprints enabled India to build its first reactor in Rajasthan. Canada also funded the project by extending a $37 million loan. In the 70s, theUSSR assumed the role of main supplier of heavy water and nuclear technology to India. During the 80s, India clandestinely acquired and developed centrifuge technology from the USSR and built uranium enrichment plants at Trombay and Mysore. This clandestine supply enabled the Indians to use reactors like Dhruva to create plutonium for its atomic weapons program. India clandestinely acquired and developed centrifuge technology from the USSR and built uranium enrichment plants at Trombay and Mysore. This clandestine supply enabled the Indians to use reactors like Dhruva to create plutonium for its atomic weapons program.

Ironically, Indian nuclear program is also a partner of the A.Q. Khan network. According to South African court documents, in the late 1980s and early 90s, the network organized the production and delivery of flow meter units for India’s gas centrifuge program. The network provided additional sensitive items to the Indian program, including feed and withdrawal equipment for centrifuge cascades.

In January 1996, in a barefaced show of defiance of a "Nuclear Suppliers Group" ban, Moscow and New Delhi, reached an agreement to build two Russian nuclear reactors at Kudankalam in Tamil Nadu. Not to be left behind, in March 2006, President Bush also signed a nuclear corporation deal with India which will vastly enhance Indian ability to manufacture about 50 nuclear weapons per year.

India conducted its first so-called "peaceful nuclear explosion," on 18 May 1974.

Israel: France laid the foundations of Israeli nuclear program on 3 October 1957, by signing an agreement to build a 24 MWt reactor (although the cooling systems and waste facilities were designed to handle three times that power) and, a chemical reprocessing plant in Israel. Under the leadership of Col. Manes Pratt of the IDF Ordinance Corps a secret nuclear complex was constructed at Dimona, Negev desert. France also supplied the heavy water and delivered Uranium for the Israeli plant which went critical in 1964.

Since 1958, the United States had been well aware of the Israel nuclear program, but it did nothing to stop it. Walworth Barbour, US ambassador to Israel from 1961-73, said the "President did not send me there to give him problems. He does not want to be told any bad news." After the 1967 war, Barbour even put a stop to military attachés' intelligence collection efforts around Dimona. In 1966, upon learning Israel was beginning to put nuclear warheads on its missiles, the US embassy staff sent a warning message to Washington, the message disappeared in thin air and was never acted upon.

United Kingdom also generously contributed to the Israeli nuclear program. It supplied Israel plutonium, uranium 235, beryllium, and lithium 6.

Israel is believed to be in possession of up to 200 nuclear weapons. In 1979, in collaboration with South Africa, Israel is suspected to have conducted a nuclear explosion in the southern Indian Ocean.

South Africa: Israel introduced South Africa to the exclusive nuclear weapons club. In exchange for S. Africa’s 300 tons of uranium Israel provided technical assistance for its weapons program. "Oppenheimer of Israel" Ernst David Bergmann and several other Israeli nuclear scientists visited South Africa in 1967. In 1974, Moshe Dayan secretly visited S. Africa to discuss nuclear weapon cooperation, including the possibility of nuclear tests. Between 1977 and 78 Israel received 50 tons of natural uranium from S. Africa and in return supplied 30 grams of tritium. Israel is also believed to have provided bomb the design. Till July 1990, South Africa was in possession of six nuclear devices and an additional partially completed device.

Brazil: The US proliferation to Brazil goes way back to the 1940s when it signed an agreement to transfer the nuclear technology in exchange for cooperative mining of uranium and monazite. In 1965, the US provided Brazil with medium-grade enriched uranium for its first nuclear reactor. In 1975, Brazil signed an unsafeguarded technology transfer agreement with West Germany for a complete nuclear fuel cycle, including enrichment and reprocessing plants. The agreement called for Germany to transfer eight nuclear reactors, an uranium enrichment facility, plutonium reprocessing plant, and Becker "jet nozzle" enrichment technology. Brazilian nuclear weapons program code-named "Solimões" was exposed by the members of Comissão Parlamentar de Inquérito. Instituto de Estudos Avançados designed two nuclear devices.

Iraq: Roots of Iraqi nuclear weapons program are also traced back to the US "Atoms for Peace" program and to the Soviet-supplied research reactor. In 1974 Saddam Hussein flew to India to sign a nuclear cooperation treaty with the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The treaty involved the exchange of scientists, training, and technology. Iraqi scientists worked in India's plutonium separation labs. The same Iraqi scientists later took charge of the nuclear fuel reprocessing unit supplied to Iraq by the Italian company. Indian scientists trained the Iraqis at Atomic Energy Commission's computer center on the use of nuclear computer codes. In 1976, Iraq and France concluded an agreement for MTR reactors. In 1979, Iraq sent engineers to visit India's nuclear establishments. During the same year, Iraq contracted the Italian company SNIA-Techint to build pilot plutonium separation and handling facility, and a uranium refining and unsafeguarded fuel-manufacturing plant. Iraq also obtained large amounts of uranium from Portugal, Brazil and Nigeria. An IAEA group in April 1992, announced Iraqi nuclear weapons program plan was established in 1988. Iraq’s objective was to produce its first nuclear weapon by 1991.

Iran: Iran is yet another example of American-initiated proliferation through the “Atoms for Peace” program. In late 1960s a US supplied 5MW thermal research reactor went online. In 1974, ‘76 and ‘77 Iran concluded several contracts with the US, Germany and France for the construction of nuclear plants and the supply of nuclear fuel. In 1976, Iran signed a $700 million contract to purchase uranium from South Africa. Ironically, at one time during Shah’s rule Iran and Israel discussed a plan to modify Israel's surface-to-surface Jericho missiles for use by Iran. In 1995, Russia signed an agreement with Iran to complete the construction of the Bushehr reactors and to build three additional reactors.

Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi visited Tehran in 1974 to establish nuclear contacts between Iran and India. In 1975 Iran hosted nuclear technical advisers from India. On November 11, 1991 the Indian External Affairs Minister Madhav Singh Solanki signed a technical cooperation deal with Iran ensuring the delivery of 10MW reactor to Iran. An Indian nuclear scientist Dr. Y.S.R. Prasad who retired in 2000 made at least two visits to Iran’s Bushehr nuclear facility. In December 2003, the Indian external affairs minister Yashwant Sinha said "most certainly between Iran and India, there would be collaboration, there is collaboration". In 2004, the US State Department blacklisted two Indian scientists for nuclear proliferation to Iran. The US State Department spokesman Richard Boucher explained, "The cases reflected poor Indian commitment to non-proliferation." The US also sanctioned two Indian firms for selling prohibited items to Iran.

In April 2006, Iranian President Ahmadinejad declared "Iran has joined the club of nuclear nations," which meant Iran has completed enriched fuel cycle.

Those who view Pakistan’s amateurish attempts at nuclear proliferation as unique or as a new phenomenon either harbor malice in their hearts or are selectively oblivious of history of nuclear proliferation. Their attempt is as spiteful as it is deliberate. Those moralizing to Pakistan are well advised to do some honest soul searching.

The nuclear proliferation genie set loose by President Harry Truman will continue to wreck havoc till the end of time or till every nation renounce the nuclear technology in all of its manifestations.

Courtesy Defense Journal


Reader Comments:

What about Pakistan? Did it make everything indigenously??

Arun, Hungary - 30 May, 2006

u pakistanis will not give up after reading this article i can understand how frustrating u pakistanis and want to blame others for ur misdeeds.infact u are the dvils.

marcos dcosta, United Kingdom - 30 May, 2006

The basic issue

India did not sign the NPT, but others signed it and did the proliferation.
Why do yo exonerate Pakistan when you deal with all others?
Indian nuclear program is spread across the country and has never had any accident. The security is really tight. I have seen it. There is no danger that someone unwanted might even come near these facilities.
The basic issue for which India did not sign the NPT remians. If China has it, the West has it and many others have it, how can 1.08 billion people be denied it. And, of course every country has the right to have it for the same reason.

Dayal, Hungary - 31 May, 2006

what about pakistan?

I want to ask only one question to the writer, you eloborately told the proliferation of each country, but not written a single word about pakistan's proliferaton,i.e., Dr.A.Q.khan? why you are trying to hide the truth which everyone knows clearly?

vetri, Hungary - 31 May, 2006

Good piece of information.It would be great if you could add detailed information of Pakistan's nuclear proliferation.Hope, you will do it soon.

Sachin, Hungary - 01 June, 2006

root causes of nuclear weapons

Mr Adnan Gill I realy don't want to criticize your articles but you write such a funny assumptions made by you that I'm left with no option. Tell me who told you, “Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi visited Tehran in 1974 to establish nuclear contacts between Iran and India.”? bla bla. where this is written? Please don't give references of your previously written articles or articles of other writers. Give us the reference of some reputed agencies like CIA or UN recognized agencies.

Too many scientists of the world have been black listed because this provides the base for all the investigations but no Indian scientist was ever be proved guilty. They were just black listed for some time as many of other countries also. No one can be compared with Mr A.K.Khan who was caught red handed.

India has made three proposals in UN:

1. No nuclear attack by any country against a non-nuclear country.
2. No first nuclear attack against any country.
3. A time frame to remove nuclear bombs from whole world.

US say US want to keep nukes to face any challenge from outer space in future. This can be understood but India has also said in UN that if country like Russia, China or US don't want to remove nukes from their country then atleast they would say that the nukes they want to keep will be in watch of UN. And if US, Russia and china are ready to make their nukes under eyes of UN and promise not to attack on other countries, India has said india is ready to remove nukes from india. And here Pakistan has also said they will be ready to remove nukes from pakistan if india also do the same. Try to understand the root causes.

Mr Adnan if I hate the word PROLIFERATION the reason is, it don't give any time frame to remove nukes from the world and on the other hand it says P-5 can keep nukes. and the case becomes more serious when countries like US, Russia and China even threaten other countries by nukes and don't want other countries to have nukes.

You said, “India lovingly took Iraq, Vietnam, South Korea and especially Iran under its wings. Bla bla” tell me the meaning of LOVINGLY LOOK? India loves Iran it doesn't means India wants a nuclear Iran. India wants a stable, developed and rich Iran. Shia Muslim community in India is rich, decent and well educated, India just wants to see the Iran like this. This is how India loves Iran. If you love someone, tell him the way he may do progress. Don't tell him the way he will destroy himself.

A typical power balance has been established in the world. China has nukes to balance US. UK and France have nukes to satisfy whole Europe. India has nukes to balance china and also Indian commitment of no first use of nukes has given China a type of security. And Pakistan has nukes to balance India and the way no nuclear war could ever happen between these two countries in last 15 years, India believe if democracy will come in Pakistan, there will be no real threat from Pakistani nukes. Because only Mr Musharraf has challenged india by Nukes till now, no democratic leader ever said Pakistan may use nukes against India. Here this is to note that Mr N.S., former PM of Pakistan, has said he didn't even know about Kargil operation made by Pakistani military. And there is no real Israel in the world, Israel is part of United States of America and Asia. so their nukes is in control of US. And except N-Korea and Iran, there is no 9th country in the world that has nukes. Here INDIA, PAKISTAN and ISRAEL HAVN'T SIGNED NPT SO THEY DON'T COME UNDER THIS LAW OF PROLIFERATION. And NPT gives license to P-5 so they can keep nukes. And with rest of the world, Iran and N-Korea have signed NPT so only these two countries are going against the law of NPT.

Now if Iran will get nuclear technology, this will badly disturb the power balance of the world and US will not accept this and will certainly attack on Iran. Now in case of a war, if Iran will drop one nuclear bomb on Israel, US will use atleast 20 nukes against Iran and at the end, the gas released from the N-Bomb dropped on Israel will destroy Philistine also. And on the other hand Iran will be completely finished by US. And rest of the Muslim countries will just do friendship with US like they have been doing till now. And QURBANI of Iran for Islam will be of no use.

And if stability in the whole world could be established, Iran can shake hands with India and other countries for removal of nukes from the whole world. And if you want to write about the root causes, then first understand the root causes. Otherwise you will just waste your time and the powerful countries like P-5s will be successful in maintaining all the powers and country like India will have no choice other than to do the same as P-5 do. And rest of the world will be forced to follow them. Becoz india can just repeat her three proposals in UN, nothing else.


s tiwari, Hungary - 02 June, 2006


Good Article i agree
Now you starts crying like a pregnant lady, when USA was favouring pakistan, then you were jumping on our head.
Tell me if US did not favoured you for long time. Now US has changed side, but thats common for US, Isn't it.

Atul, Hungary - 02 June, 2006


Your article are just so full of misinformation & BS that they are just a waste of time. In this article you haven't said single word about AQ Khan network for nuclear proliferation & support by Pakistani government for all the terrorist activities in the region. Just look at your governmemnt its not even democartically elected. A military general Msharaaf has declared himself president for life, kicked Nawaz Sharif from Pakistan & attacked India at Kargil. What a shame? Why don't you start writing for situation in Pakistan for a change instead always blaming others for Pakistan's miserable condition. Stop competing with India you will never be as great a country as India.

Black Jack, United Kingdom - 03 June, 2006

The usual rut !

India's nuclear technology has been created indigeneously. The end result is purely the hard work and brain-power of people working on the project. As far Pak is concerned its always - "If u can have it, so can we". Well, with the recent Indo-US alliance and understanding Pak is headed towards Mexico. India's Mexico.

Naresh Puri, Pakistan - 04 June, 2006

My Dear Indian friends, we should take this artical as a commentary of a learning generalist?? Facts and figures for tese kind of debates can never be 100%. Gill's artical is just a basis analysis - can be wrong or right. What we should try to avoid provokative against each other in Soth Asia. Think for poverty elevation, prosperity and excellent neighbours on surroundings. Dragging the old history will not help each other. What is doing Iran - they must know very well and they have to tackle the situation themselves. India and pakistan both are emerging country and can bring the prosperity for neighbours as well. Thanks

Lala Khan, Afghanistan - 05 June, 2006

Great! Article exposes all those who play Mr clean.

noor, Hungary - 09 June, 2006

google " Pak Proliferation"

I wonder how long it took u to come up with this BS .Would have been much easier if u had googled usin two words " Pak Proliferation". try it next time

Ranjit Singh gill, Pakistan - 12 June, 2006

I read some of ur other work.
and I could not find work that does not focus on India.

, United Kingdom - 12 June, 2006


The writer seems brainwashed with anti Indian sentiments. Did he have education in madrsas. Most of the nuclear technology which other countries shared is by open deals, unlike Pakistan's it a clandestine.

Sunil Sinha, United Kingdom - 26 May, 2007

 What do you think about the story ? Leave your comments!

Heading (Optional)
Your Comments: *

Your Name:*
E-mail (Optional):
City (Optional):
Country (Optional):
Field marked(*) are mandatory.
Note. The PakTribune will publish as many comments as possible but cannot guarantee publication of all. PakTribune keeps its rights reserved to edit the comments for reasons of clarity, brevity and morality. The external links like http:// https:// etc... are not allowed for the time being to be posted inside comments to discourage spammers.

  Speak Out View All
Military Courts
Imran - Qadri long march
Candid Corner
Exclusive by
Lt. Col. Riaz Jafri (Retd)
Pakistan itself a victim of state-sponsored terrorism: Qamar Bajwa
Should You Try Napping During the Workday?
Suggested Sites