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In The Name of God

24 March, 2006

By Anwaar Hussain

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In a screaming instance of a heart rending paradox in the Muslim world, an Afghan convert to Christianity is to be tried in a Kabul court for apostasy, a 'crime' that is punishable by death in that country. Despite clear injunctions in the Quran that "there is no compulsion in religion" and "to you your own religion and to me, mine", an innocent man may be executed while we stand by and watch this gruesome charade in the name of God. The Muslim moderates, of course, continue to remain submerged in their deafening silence.

 Let us examine the issue from both religious and supra-religious points of view. First, from the religious angle.

We keep lamenting that the Talibaan-type are not the true face of Islam, nor are the fundamentalists the true representatives of this religion and that Islam is a religion of peace and love yet we cannot explain the total absence of our outrage when the same Talibaan were beating and executing women. While we can work up a rich lather at the mouths over the Danish cartoons, we cannot explain our silence when some mad radicals demolished the Bamiyan statues or when a humanitarian worker, Margaret Hassan was slaughtered in Iraq or when Theo van Gogh, a columnist/filmmaker was shot, almost decapitated and stabbed in the heart because of his criticism of Islam?

We have cried ourselves hoarse that the West is suspicious of the Muslim Ummah and that there is a wave of Islamophobia in the West against Islam, yet when it comes to taking a collective stand against the illogicalities of our clerics, we instantly lapse into a submissive silence. Should then one surmise that there is no such thing as a moderate Muslim?

Some half baked Islamic scholars of the Talibaan kind interpret the Divine for us based on centuries old research and we refuse to see the simple fact that those earlier scholars did sometimes interpret texts in a way as if theirs was the only valid explanation and that the prevailing situation of their time was the final situation.

Why do we forget that newer conditions do arise that need to be addressed by interpreting the revealed text of the Quran and sayings and practices of the Prophet (PBUH) for the prevalent conditions? Why do we forget that the inherent beauty of Islam was supposed to be that its followers must submit if new truth is established through ijtihad (research and investigation) and that Islam was not supposed to be a religion frozen in time and that the Muslims, therefore, always need to change their position if more appropriate and correct conclusions are arrived after careful and meticulous use of reasoning?

Now let us talk of Apostasy. Fortunately, some highly distinguished contemporary Islamic scholars based on renewed ijtihad, hold absolutely differing views on the subject of apostasy.

The historic fact remains that the Prophet (PBUH) never put anyone to death for apostasy alone. No one was sentenced to death solely for repudiation of faith unless accompanied by certain other crimes. Those other crimes would have been punishable by death in any contemporary state of the time. As a matter of fact the Quran is completely silent on the question of death as a punishment for apostasy. Apostasy simply does not qualify for temporal punishment.

Consider the following.

The most oft quoted Hadith (saying of The Prophet (PBUH)) for justifying the death penalty for apostasy is “The blood of a Muslim who professes that there is no god but Allah and that I am His Messenger, is sacrosanct except in three cases: a married adulterer; a person who has killed another human being; and a person who has abandoned his religion, while splitting himself off from the community”

Mohammad Hashim Kamali, an eminent Muslim scholar, points out that this Hadith of the Prophet (PBUH) “makes it clear that the apostate must also boycott the community and challenge its legitimate leadership, in order to be subjected to death penalty”. Also, Imam Ibn Taymiyyah, another illustrious Muslim scholar, explained that “the crime referred in the Hadith under discussion is that of high treason and not apostasy as such”. Now ‘high treason’ would be punishable by death in most of contemporary laws of different lands.

In fact in a landmark ruling, the Supreme Court of Malaysia ruled that conversion to Christianity by a Muslim is not a punishable offence. [Mohammad Hashim Kamali. ‘Freedom of Expression in Islam’. Ilmiah Publishers. Kuala Lumpur. 1998. pp 87-107. Chapter IX. Freedom of Religion].

Likewise, S. A. Rahman, former Chief Justice of Pakistan while discussing in his monograph ‘The Punishment of Apostasy in Islam’ looked “into the evidence in the Quran and the Sunnah in detail, and drew attention to the fact that the Quran is silent on the question of death as the punishment for apostasy, despite this subject occurring no less then twenty times in the Holy Book”. Justice Rahman examined the Hadith “kill whoever changes his religion” and found “some weakness in the transmission”.

Justice S. A. Rahman’s conclusion is also supported by other evidence, such as the fact that neither Prophet (PBUH) himself, nor any of his Companions ever compelled anyone to embrace Islam, nor did they sentence anyone to death solely for renunciation of faith

Justice Rahman’s view is also supported by such well-known earlier scholars as Ibrahim al Nakhai and Sufyan al Thawri (both held the view that “apostate should be re-invited to Islam but should never be condemned to death”), the renowned Hanafi jurist Shams al Din al Sarakhsi (“apostasy does not qualify for temporal punishment”), Malaki jurist al Baji (“apostasy is a sin which carries no prescribed penalty”) and modern scholars as Abd al Hakim al Ili and Ismail al Badawi (apostasy to be punishable by death has to be “political in character and aimed at the inveterate enemies of Islam”), Mahmud Shaltut (“apostasy carries no temporal penalty”), Mahmassani (“death penalty was meant to apply, not to simple act of apostasy from Islam, but when apostasy was linked to an act of political betrayal of the community”).

Similarly, Selim el Awa, another noted Muslim scholar, raised a very rational argument that if the Hadith “whoever renounces his religion shall be killed” is literally applied to all subjects of a Muslim state, it would also be applicable “to Christians, who convert to Judaism and vice versa” which “manifestly falls outside the intention” of the Hadith.

The great Iranian scholar Ayatollah Mutahhari highlighted the incongruity of the compulsion with the sprit of Islam, and the basic redundancy of punitive measures in the propagation of its message. He wrote that it is impossible to force anyone to acquire the kind of faith that is required by Islam, just as “it is not possible to spank a child into solving an arithmetical problem. His mind and thought must be left free in order that he may solve it. The Islamic faith is something of this kind”

Dr. Hassan Turabi, the ideologue of the Sudanese Islamic movement, raised an equally pertinent argument on the validity of the opinion of those scholars who hold the view that apostasy in Islam is punishable by death. He pointed out: “How can it be imagined by a rational person that Allah, Who has compelled none to believe, allows us the right to compel others and force them to believe?”

“If Almighty Allah has granted us the merit of freedom, he who wants to believe is allowed that right and so too the one who wants to disbelieve. If He has chosen to distinguish us from other creatures through His gift of freedom, instead of creating us believers by necessity like stones, mountains, and the earth, which all fear the responsibility of freedom shouldered by Man, the ignorant, the unjust; if that is so, then the exercise of that freedom will become a matter of course – a self-evident truth confirmed by the Quran as in, ‘No one is to be compelled to believe’ ”.

“The Prophet’s saying about apostasy is a short statement pronounced within the context of war conditions….The saying is related to the case of the Muslim who deserts his fellows and joins the enemies of Islam. Such a person will either be killed or kill someone else”

It is, therefore, amply clear that the Prophet’s saying about the apostate is restricted to times of war, when a Muslim deserter joins the ranks of the enemies to wage war against Islam, rather than seeing this Hadith as a measure for controlling the faith of those who do not bear arms.

From the supra-religious point of view, I have a few questions that I need to ask of my fellow Muslims. What if the Christian countries too reply with a tit for tat and apply similar laws to Christian converts to Islam? What would then happen to this "fastest spreading religion" on planet earth? And if Islam indeed is the one true religion of God, why are we Muslims scared witless every time a Muslim changes his faith to some other?

Give me some answers please, in the name of God.

Author’s Note: For the want of accuracy and not for limited writing skills, I have drawn heavily upon the work of Shah Abdul Halim, Chairman of Islamic Information Bureau Bangladesh, in his article “Islam & Pluralism”. Despite my best efforts, I have not been able to contact him for permission to quote from his work. I hope he will be kind enough forgive this liberty in view of the spirit of my article. That I am profoundly thankful to him, of course, remains an understatement.

Absolute must-reads with this article: 'The Silence of the Lambs' , 'Shariah Laws in Modern Times' and 'The Naked Truth of Pakistani Mullahs' also by Anwaar hussain.


Copyrights : Anwaar Hussain

Courtesy: Fountainhead

Reader Comments:

you are a puppet of west

how much did you get,

IMRAN ADDIN, Pakistan - 24 March, 2006

Simplified religion suprareligion and reality

Quran came via Gabriel(jibriil a/s)
And Hadiis is prophecy of the Holy
Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) without
The need of eminent scholar Jurist
Judge Supreme Court Bush Blair Pope
Or UN resolution.

Question. Should this Afghan convert
Be killed or re-invited to Islam to stay
In Afghanistan or Deported in Christian
Countries of Bush Blair Italy Germany
Catholic Pope or Protestant Cardinal
And their allied soldiers with whom
This specific Afghan re-entered in
Afghanistan recently.Do not waste time!

Answer. Yes almost certainly be eliminated
If reinvitation to Islam does not work.

(With him evict Christian Soldiers And
missionaries enlist Quantity they killed)

After decades of Training and Stay in
Germany he has entered in Kabul to
Be Sacrificed as “Jesus killed towards
“Christianity in whole Of Afghanistan”

Prophet Pbuh said those who abandon religion
Community join ranks of enemy and re enters in
Territory be killed

They included those who stayed in Christian
Abyssinia or re entered or those none Muslims
Of Arabia who presumably converted to Islam

100% Muslim Afghanistan became theory now 99% Muslim
1% other (Missionary soldiers)
The provocation soldiers are diverting attention in
Pursuit to link Iraq oil Baku oil Iran oil .Muslim
Countries like Iran Pakistan Turkey may have to
Enter Afghanistan and evict them with even Karzai
And allied linkage. It is forbidden to waste time on
Single simple issue while 1% is preparing to kill
Loot bombard retain Iraq and level it off with Armenia.

M.B.Zakaria, United Arab Emirates - 25 March, 2006

Thanks for the dialog

Mr. Hussain,
Thank you for speaking about this situation that has gained the attention of the world. You have addressed it in a complete way. As a Christian, more, as a human being, it saddens my heart to see someone killed unjustly. I think Abdur Rahman is convicted of his beliefs, not to be ugly against his former faith, but in response to what he believes now. It is hard for anyone in spiritual authority to see someone fall from the faith, but, in the end, we all make OUR OWN peace with G_d. I am learning more about Islam and your article has helped me understand the issues you have to wrestle with to be obedient to what you believe.

Collin Cooke, United Kingdom - 25 March, 2006

Some more facts --1

The views about the penalties for apostasy vary from Muslim to Muslim. There are many scholars who have stated that the penalty for apostasy under Islamic law (Shari'ia) is death, and there are scholars who have stated that apostasy carries no earthly punishment.

One of the death-penalty supporting scholars, Dr. A. Rahman I. Doi in Shariah: The Islamic Law (A.S. Noordeen, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1998, p. 265-267) states, "The punishment by death in the case of apostasy has been unanimously agreed upon by all the four schools of Islamic jurisproudence". Alhaji Ajijola in Introduction to Islamic law ( International Islamic Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1989 p.128) states that Apostasy is a Hadd sentence and the penalty prescribed is death.

Adbul Qadir Oudah, a prolific Egyptian Shari'a scholar in Criminal Law of Islam (Translated by S. Zakir Aijaz, Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, India, 1999 (Improved edition), Volume II. p. 258-262; Volume IV. p. 19-21, ISBN 81-7151-273-9 ) states that the view advocated by the jurists belonging to all the four madhabs of Islam is "According to the Shariah taking 'murtad's' life is an impunitive act or one exempt from punishment. Hence if some one kills him, he will not be deemed as wilfully guilty." The legal issue between the different schools being when a Muslim can act against an apostate without the sanction of the organised state. In 'Abdurrahmani'l-Djaziri's Kitabul'l-fiqh 'ala'l-madhahibi'l-'arba'a (Vol. 5, pp.422-440) (Translated from the Arabic) First English Edition (Villach): 1997: the claim is "All four imams (the founders of the four schools of Islamic law) -- may Allah have mercy upon them -- agree that the apostate whose fall from Islam is beyond doubt -- may Allah forbid it -- must be killed, and his blood must be spilled without reservation. The hypocrite and heretic (zindiq) who poses as a Muslim but has secretly remained an unbeliever must also be killed.

There are liberal scholars as well who have argued that apostasy carries no earthly punishment and that the Qur'an only warns apostates of punishments in the hereafter. S. A. Rahman, a former Chief justice of Pakistan (Punishment of apostasy in Islam," Kazi Publ., (1986) ISBN 068618551X) examined and concluded that there was no death penalty in any of the 20 instances of apostasy mentioned in the Qur'an. Abdullah Saeed and Hassan Saeed (Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam, Ashgate Publishing, (March 30, 2004), ISBN 0754630838) argue that the law of apostasy and its punishment by death in Islamic law conflicts with a variety of fundamentals of Islam and with the modern concept of the freedom to choose one's religion. They contend that the early development of the law of apostasy was essentially a religio-political tool, and that there was a large diversity of opinion among early Muslims on the punishment. Mirza Tahir Ahmed (Murder in the name of Allah, Lutterworth Press 1989, ISBN 0718828054), the spiritual leader of the Ahmadis, a self proclaimed Muslim sect, but enforced into apostasy by being declared non-Muslims in many Muslim countries, concludes his book by "Apostasy which is not aggravated by some other crime is not punishable in this world. This is the teaching of God. This was the teaching of the Holy Prophet. This is the view confirmed by Hanafi jurists,26 Fateh al-Kadeer27 Chalpi,28 Hafiz ibn Qayyim, Ibrahim Nakhai, Sufyan Thauri and many others. The Maududian claim of consensus, concerning the tradition they hold to be true, is a mere fiction."

Mahmood, Pakistan - 25 March, 2006

some more facts-2

With the exception of a few Muslim countries, notably Iran and Saudi Arabia, the modern Muslim states are not founded on Islamic law. The majority have a written constitution and the laws it spells out are considered to be primary and to take precedence over all other laws including Sharia, Which means, in practice, that Muslim countries aim to harmonize the laws of the modern constitutions and those bequeathed by the Islamic Sharia, by no means an easy task. A consequence of this is that the death penalty is rarely carried out today in most Muslim countries, but there remains an overwhelming sense of outrage among many Muslims when another leaves Islam. An example of the need to reconcile the constitutional penal code with the Islamic Sharia is the infamous blasphemy laws of Pakistan. In 1980, under the leadership of President Zia-ul-Haq, the Federal Shariat Court was created and given jurisdiction to examine any existing law to ensure it was not repugnant to Islam [1] and in its early acts it passed ordinances included five that explicitly targeted religious minorities: a law against blasphemy; a law punishing the defiling of the Qur'an; a prohibition against insulting the wives, family, or companions of the Prophet of Islam; and two laws specifically restricting the activities of Ahmadis, who were declared non-Muslims.

Under traditional Islamic law (according to Abdurrahmani'l-Djaziri's Kitabul'l-fiqh 'ala'l-madhahibi'l-'arba'a i.e Apostasy in Islam according to the Four Schools of Islamic Law (Vol. 5, pp. 422-440) First English Edition (Villach): 1997) an apostate may be given up to three days while in incarceration to repent and accept Islam again and if not the apostate is to be killed without any reservations. There are difference between the four schools in the various details on how to deal with the various aspects of imposing the penalties with respect to the material property and holdings of the apostate and in the status and rights of the family of the apostate. A distinction is also made between "Murtad Fitri", an apostate who was born of Muslim parents, and "Murtad Milli", an apostate who had converted into Islam initially. Some additional penalties and considerations that are mentioned are that a divorce is automatic if either spouse apostatize, an under age apostate is imprisoned till he reaches maturity and then he is killed, and the recommended execution is beheading with a sword. As mentioned earlier that these are rarely ever carried out in toto at present as examples of Apostasy give below show and also underline the problem in harmonizing the constitutional law and Islamic law in the various countries.

Mahmood, Pakistan - 25 March, 2006

What are you taking about Anwaar

If you have any doubts about what islam prescribes for Apostacy you need to read this from Azhar Uni.

Salim, Pakistan - 25 March, 2006

In the name of Allah - " The Trial and the Outcome ".

Hadith “Th0se who abandon community religion
Join Ranks of Enemy be killed” is true……..
For this very conflict 157-178 Muslim convert
(UN)WENT to Christian Abyssinia .The trial
brought a Judgement by Christian Emperor
of Abyssinia (need shedding Light on it ).The
trial took place in the presence of Foreign
Attorney Generals of then Abdullah Sabah
Qureish and Jews UN representatives who
Who went for their extradition.They Disputed and
Raised the Issue of “Conversion and Muslim
Attempt to convert Whole of Arabia Africa
East Europe Russia India China and send
Khans everywhere” .Expand Judgment There.
There is no compulsion in religion. Hajjis of
Abraham and Pharaoh of Moses Duga Kali
Mother based “MA worshippers” do it
differently Than “Holy father Son worshipping”
.In the case of Afghanistan Bush Blair Pope
Catholic or Protestant Cardinal New version
is “Jesus die for our sin And FOR our benefit
Jesus die for crime Of others . They are 1% .”
Supreme Court Judge of none Muslim
Majority Country ( Malaysia) Jurist Judges
eminent scholars and Activist and those
who argue Christ Was Crucified while Quran
reject it With Jesus Issa ibn Miriam (pbuh)
Was made to believe as Crucified”.

This 1% cult in AFGHANISTAN is
Recent. Perhaps that is why 99 came
Names of Allah and One Hypocritical
Mixed names is S I L E N T
Hajjis of Abraham,Hirise tower of kaba
Also came along with Plein de Abraham
Nr Canadian Capital Ottawa with “KhanStadt”
(Now capital Quebec City)Imagine wealth of
Khans of Tatastan with advanced civilization
Near Moscow with the largest Mosque
of Europe 4 000 closed mosque and new Tube
subway train advance progressive Muslim
majority Province near Moscow and
Democracy of Ottowa/washington .
Khanstadt is also“Quebec City”
.Imagine COLUMBUS Spain and
Philippine Latin America …. Ps Now
I know why I met Khrushchev Bulganin Emperor
Haille Selassi of Abyssinia and queen Elizabeth II
In the same location in Calcutta before participating
visiting or democracy related issue.

benz m Ispahani, India - 25 March, 2006

I was shocked to read that insane clerics have been calling for the death of an Afghan citizen on the basis of converting his religion from Islam to Christanity.

The author of this article rightly attempts to question the deafening silence of the moderates amonst Islam on this issue.

aarvey, Hungary - 25 March, 2006

Scripture Controversy Case Again

Arriving in Afghanistan with A LONE convert
Plus Roman Soldiers via Africa Abyssinia Somali
Sudan Famine to Kuwait Iraq Saudi Arabia UAE
Occupation has ended in Iran Invasion REVENGE

Iranian ROMAN had knocked out then Real
Romans Who had even destroyed their
SEPULCHRA in around 615 A.D after
Abyssinia trial.

Moslem Converts as you go…..

In the first migration 16 went and in
Second 103 Went to Christian Emperor's
Abyssinia .Delegation in the format of
Attorneys FOR Jews Christian Qureish were
Represented by Abdullah Bin Rabia and
Omer bin Aas .

Muslim attorney was Hazrat Jaffer .The
Case was Legal Political Warlike Case
Amid presentation of scriptures from Bible
And few Quran surah such as Ankabut
Alzumar etc in the presence of Christian
padres priests..who should take over this
dispute again between West Democracy
of rich and NATO power vs Iran Islam
via Canadian Zohra kazmii Photographer case., Canada - 25 March, 2006

very good insight no hate just good journalism from the heart

bob frobenius, United Kingdom - 26 March, 2006

it require some more

this is a very good article. this type of articles are highly required in country like Afghanistan. if typically religious people like those living in Afghanistan will read this type of articles, they may certainly get some very very good lessons of Islam.

But we gotto do some more things to avoid any religious controversy. In modern muslim countries like pakistan, saudi arabia, malaysia etc. this wuld be justified in non religious way. What I mean, if u wanna say killing someone is wrong just becoz he changed his religion. then straight say this is wrong. Please don't give any religious justification. Literate muslim people wont be said this is wrong becoz of some religious rules. They can easily understand this is wrong. Just say , “no one can kill any human being just becoz he changed his religion. This is wrong.” Articles wuld be written in such a way that it wuld try to reduce aggressive religious feelings of any religion specially in modern muslim countries.

But in case of country like afganistan, Only these types of articles are required as 80% Illiterate afganistani can understand only those things which are religiously right.

s tiwari, Hungary - 26 March, 2006

great article

this is a great article.i hope it will help to remove the misconeption about quran.we also need journalists like u and irfan husain who daringly counter the fundamentalists nad those mullahs who propagate killings through u think it is justificable that u cant live as people lived in medivial the world is changing u have to change urself.

prashant, Hungary - 28 March, 2006

Sad Salim of Pakistan

Its sad that you have to base your knowledge or fatwas and Islam on Wikipedia articles. Its funny... you seem to hate us Westerners for our Apostacy, yet you don't mind using our invention--the internet--or our language--english--to condemn us with. Can we say hypocracy?

Ian, United Arab Emirates - 28 March, 2006

Well written & thoughtful article

I have been studying Koran lately reading it out to my son and I am a non-Muslim. I am gaining real insights into the beauty of the religion and the message. Unfortunately, the message has been lost in the power politics in today's world.

pirbaba, United Kingdom - 28 March, 2006

Informative article

This is a very informative, even scholarly article.I would like to thank Mr. Hussain for taking a stand on what must be a very difficult issue for him. I commend him for his courage. In fact, so should we all...

Articles like this are vital to us in these chaotic and terrifying times when, day after day, all we seem to see is death and destruction.

I have read all of the "absolute must-reads" which Mr. Hussain mentions at the bottom of his post and I agree with him.'Silence of the Lambs,''Shariah Laws in Modern Times' and 'The Naked Truth of Pakistani Mullahs,'should be read - over and over. I think they are an essential compliment to this latest, 'In the Name of God.'

I can hardly believe Isadora is writing these complimentary remarks to this particular writer. In the past I have written many angry, frothing at the mouth comments when Mr. Hussain has written his equally frothing at the mouth anti-American observations. It is nice to find a point of agreement for a change.

To speak out against what the writer calls a "Taliban-type" version of Islam, can be very dangerous and it requires more than one writer's lonely voice, in my opinion.

The need seems to be for a very persistent crowd of Anwaar Hussains. In time I believe we will find such a crowd.

I am not a Muslim, I am a Catholic. My religion too, was stolen and changed into something it is not. Because of this, I have learned there are times when we simply must act.

What are the alternatives?

Isadora, United Kingdom - 28 March, 2006

i agree with anwaar. very good article indeed. if this person has converted to christianity he will be answerable to Allah on the day of judgment...those examples cited by earlier individuals like the king of abssynia are old and like the article prescribes we need new interpretations of the Quran and Hadis. who are the muslims i mean so called "muslims" like the Em Em Ae and taliban to question him...he will be questioned by Allah and lets leave it to God and let him live. people should be allowed to do what ever they want until they dont hurt the feelings of others. and i think this person converting is his personal issue not effecting anyone. Hence he should be allowed to live.

Asfar Siddiqui, Pakistan - 28 March, 2006

Imran insted of critizing the writer you might want to get the facts before calling some one a puppet. It shows that how educated you are. Its a shame that you not looking at the facts. I feel sorry for you.

narvinnie, United Kingdom - 29 March, 2006

Dont quote QuranPlease

the AYAt " LA Ikraha fiddeen"
translated as "there is no compulsion in deen" is quoted wrongly here..This ayat is meant for non-muslim coming into islam .and tee is no compulsion for them to be a muslim..the prophets duty was to let them know, and to become muslim is totally upto them.I think the author should go thru teh 6 authentic hadith books (siha satta) and they all have the same hadith quoted so many times for the "death sentence for murtid..By quatting this can claim that since there is no compulsion in deen , so i wont offer prayers, i wont pay zakat and etc.etc..By the way looks like the divide and rules is working classification of muslims in categories, extremist, fundamentalist, modern, secular etc..Islam has only two classifications, MOMin and MUNAFIQ there is no third thing..atleast what i have found in history books and from Quran and sunna..Please be careful in quoting quranic will be held accountable in the day of judjmenent..Jazak allah

shamail, Pakistan - 29 March, 2006

Please clarigy,Arn't all muslims converts form their parent religion as the mohammad has started his faith only about 1400 years back?If we go by the logic of the hadit they should have met the same fate.If one can convert to be muslim why not vise versa? Any on eplease clarify.

bhupi, Hungary - 29 March, 2006

Conversion Vice-versa

There is no compulsion in religion.There is No Mohammedan Army forcefully converting Hindus of India.There is No Indian Hindu army converting Muslim into Hindus with the aid of glorified urdu Songs of Mumbai alongwith tens of thousands of audio video and film teaching about prayers to MA or Bhagwan,about fasting ,Mangal
Sutr and all the benefits of Hinduism.If 1400 yr old Islam had not been adopted by
Muslims of India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal SriLanka IMAGINE conversion vice-versa.

mohammed_zakaria, Hungary - 29 March, 2006

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